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P.O. Box 31928
San Francisco, CA, 94131-0928

A space to encourage writing of Filipino American literature and the arts



Philippine American Writers and Artists blog for lit/arts events, reviews, news, and opportunities.

The Commonwealth Cafe Blog: The Three Stars


Please check out Jean Vengua's Commonwealth Cafe Blog:

Notice the focus on labor issues on the front page.

With editor-in-chief D.L. Marcuelo and N.C. Villanueva, Luis Agudo co-founded the “semi-monthly” Three Stars in Stockton in 1928. The stars in its title referred to the three stars in the flag of the Philippine republic, which represented the north, central, and southern sections of the Philippines. Agudo was also founder and editor of the Philippine Independent News (later the Philippines Mail), which he founded in Salinas in 1921.

The newspaper highlighted global politics and related them to local issues. The editors were especially interested in pointing out the problems of imperialist exploitation of natural as well as labor resources. D.L. Marcuelo was a former pensionado and an ardent Philippine nationalist. An outspoken and articulate attorney, he was a respected and important community figure. An active member of the Filipino businessmen’s association, he also—with Luis Agudo, and the support of many Filipino workers— founded the Filipino Labor Union (F.L.U.), as promoted by Pablo Manlapit, in 1933—not an easy project, since those involved with the project were often subject to attacks.

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